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Deploying Infrastructures Using Terraform on UpCloud

Terraform is a tool to help us deploy infrastructures on any cloud provider such as AWS, GCP, DigitalOcean, and many more. Unlike Amazon CloudFormation which is specific only for AWS, Terraform supports many cloud providers found in Terraform's registry. It uses a domain-specific language built clearly for provisioning and configuring infrastructures named HCL or HashiCorp Configuration Language.

Meanwhile, UpCloud is an alternative cloud provider for SMEs. It targets a quite similar segment to DigialOcean and Linode. It provides a variety of popular solutions in the cloud such as managed Redis database, S3-compatible storage, private network, load balancer, and so on. Even though its cost is a little bit higher than DigitaOcean or others, it provides quite complete features on each service like the features of the load balancer that we will use in this post. Moreover, it actively publishes new features like the managed OpenSearch database published recently.

For instance, we will build an infrastructure to host a simple web server with an architecture like the following image. The server will be accessed by a domain name with an HTTPS connection.

Simple web server deployment on UpCloud

Several services that will be deployed include.

  • Private network and the router
  • Server to host the web service
  • Load balancer, including its backend and frontend rules
  • Dynamic certificate for HTTPS

First, we define some variables required for some resources. We store it in variable.tf.

# basic variables

variable "upcloud_username" {
  description = "UpCloud username"
  type = string
}

variable "upcloud_password" {
  description = "UpCloud password"
  type = string
}

variable "upcloud_zone" {
  description = "UpCloud zone"
  type = string
  default = "sg-sin1"
}

# networking

variable "my_router_name" {
  description = "Basic network router name"
  type = string
  default = "basic-net-router"
}

variable "my_network_name" {
  description = "Basic private network name"
  type = string
  default = "basic-net"
}

variable "my_lb_name" {
  description = "Basic load balancer name"
  type = string
  default = "basic-lb"
}

# server

variable "server_hostname" {
  description = "Server hostname"
  type = string
  default = "terraform.lukinotes.com" # change to your domain
}

variable "server_port" {
  description = "Default web server port"
  type = number
  default = 8080
}

variable "server_private_ip" {
  description = "Manual private IP address for the server"
  type = string
  default = "10.0.0.10" # it means we will need a private network with subnet 10.0.0.0/24
}

Second, we create a configuration file, config.tf, to set up our provider which is UpCloud.

terraform {
  required_providers {
    upcloud = {
      source  = "UpCloudLtd/upcloud"
      version = "~> 2.0"
    }
  }
}

Third, we define networking and server resources in main.tf file. We also need to prepare the public certificates of our devices because we will use public key authentication for remote accessing our server through SSH connection. Our server will be attached to a public network, private network, and utility network of our account. We enable daily backup for our server because it is free on UpCloud.

provider "upcloud" {
  username = var.upcloud_username
  password = var.upcloud_password
}

# private network

resource "upcloud_router" "sample" {
  name = var.my_router_name
}

resource "upcloud_network" "sample" {
  name = var.my_network_name # required
  zone = var.upcloud_zone # required
  router = upcloud_router.sample.id

  ip_network { # required
    address            = "10.0.0.0/24" # required
    dhcp               = true # required
    dhcp_default_route = false # is the gateway the DHCP default route?
    family             = "IPv4" # required
    gateway            = "10.0.0.1"
  }
}

# basic server

resource "upcloud_server" "sample" {
  hostname = var.server_hostname
  zone     = var.upcloud_zone
  plan     = "1xCPU-2GB"

  template {
    storage = "Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish)"
    size    = 50
    filesystem_autoresize = true
    delete_autoresize_backup = true
  }

  simple_backup {
    plan = "daily"
    time = "1900"
  }

  network_interface {
    type = "public"
  }

  network_interface {
    type = "private"
    network = upcloud_network.sample.id
    ip_address_family = "IPv4"
    ip_address = var.server_private_ip
    source_ip_filtering = true
  }

  network_interface {
    type = "utility"
  }

  login {
    user = "root"
    create_password = false

    keys = [
      "ssh-rsa abcabc pc1",
      "ssh-rsa xyzxyz pc2"
    ]
  }

  metadata = true

  labels = {
    env    = "dev"
    owner  = "luki"
  }

  # sample provisioning
  user_data = <<-EOF 
     #!/bin/bash
     echo "Hello, World!" > index.html
     nohup busybox httpd -f -p ${var.server_port} &
     EOF
}

Next, we define the load balancer and its components including frontend, backend, and certificates. We store it in loadbalancer.tf file.

resource "upcloud_loadbalancer" "sample" {
  configured_status = "started"
  name              = var.my_lb_name    # required
  plan              = "development"     # required
  zone              = var.upcloud_zone  # required

  # 0
  networks {
    name    = var.my_network_name # required
    type    = "private"   # required
    family  = "IPv4"      # required
    network = upcloud_network.sample.id
  }

  # 1
  networks {
    name   = "public-net"
    type   = "public"
    family = "IPv4"
  }
}

# BE

resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_backend" "sample" {
  loadbalancer = upcloud_loadbalancer.sample.id
  name         = "lb-be-sample"
}

## Attach our server as BE handler

resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_static_backend_member" "sample_1" {
  backend      = upcloud_loadbalancer_backend.sample.id
  name         = "lb-be-sample-1"
  ip           = upcloud_server.sample.network_interface[1].ip_address # private ip address
  port         = var.server_port
  weight       = 100
  max_sessions = 1000
  enabled      = true
}

# FE http

resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend" "sample" {
  loadbalancer         = upcloud_loadbalancer.sample.id
  name                 = "lb-fe-sample"
  mode                 = "http"
  port                 = 80
  default_backend_name = upcloud_loadbalancer_backend.sample.name

  networks {
    name = upcloud_loadbalancer.sample.networks[1].name # public network
  }
}

## Redirect HTTP to HTTPS for default server

resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend_rule" "sample_redirect_secure" {
  # required

  frontend = upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend.sample.id
  name = "redirect-https"
  priority = 60

  # optional

  actions {
    http_redirect {
      scheme = "https"
    }

    set_forwarded_headers {
      active = true
    }
  }

  matchers {
    header {
      name = "Host"
      method = "starts"
      value = var.server_hostname
      ignore_case = true
    }
  }
}

# FE https

resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend" "sample_secure" {
  loadbalancer         = upcloud_loadbalancer.sample.id
  name                 = "lb-fe-sample-secure"
  mode                 = "http"
  port                 = 443
  default_backend_name = upcloud_loadbalancer_backend.sample.name

  networks {
    name = upcloud_loadbalancer.sample.networks[1].name # public network
  }
}

## Handle HTTPS request for default server

resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend_rule" "sample_secure_serve" {
  # required

  frontend = upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend.sample_secure.id
  name = "serve-http-default"
  priority = 50

  # optional

  actions {
    use_backend {
      backend_name = upcloud_loadbalancer_backend.sample.name
    }

    set_forwarded_headers {
      active = true
    }
  }

  matchers {
    header {
      name = "Host"
      method = "starts"
      value = var.server_hostname
      ignore_case = true
    }
  }
}

# dynamic certs
resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_dynamic_certificate_bundle" "sample_dyn" {
  name = "sample-dyn"
  hostnames = [
    var.server_hostname
  ]
  key_type = "rsa"
}

# attach certificate
resource "upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend_tls_config" "sample_secure" {
  name               = "sample"
  frontend           = upcloud_loadbalancer_frontend.sample_secure.id
  certificate_bundle = upcloud_loadbalancer_dynamic_certificate_bundle.sample_dyn.id
} 

Finally, we output some values that are necessary like the IP address and DNS name of the deployed load balancer. We need to add the load balancer address into the DNS record of our domain as a CNAME record.

output "public_ip_address" {
  description = "Server IPv4 address"
  value = upcloud_server.sample.network_interface[0].ip_address
}

output "loadbalancer_networks" {
  description = "Public address of the load balancer"
  value = [ for item in upcloud_loadbalancer.sample.networks : { dns_name = item.dns_name, type = item.type, name = item.name } ]
}

Then, we can run the following commands.

terraform init
terraform plan
terraform apply

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